VRF devices combined with ip rules provides the ability to create virtual routing and forwarding domains (aka VRFs, VRF-lite to be specific) in the Linux network stack. One use case is the multi-tenancy problem where each tenant has their own unique routing tables and in the very least need different default gateways.
A VRF device is created with an associated route table. Network interfaces are then enslaved to a VRF device.
Configure use routing table <id> used by VRF <name>.
A routing table ID can not be modified once it is assigned. It can only be changed by deleting and re-adding the VRF instance.
By default the scope of the port bindings for unbound sockets is limited to the default VRF. That is, it will not be matched by packets arriving on interfaces enslaved to a VRF and processes may bind to the same port if they bind to a VRF.
TCP & UDP services running in the default VRF context (ie., not bound to any VRF device) can work across all VRF domains by enabling this option.
When VRFs are used it is not only mandatory to create a VRF but also the VRF itself needs to be assigned to an interface.
VyOS 1.4 (sagitta) introduced dynamic routing support for VRFs.
Currently dynamic routing is supported for the following protocols:
The CLI configuration the same as mentioned in above articles. The only difference is, that each routing protocol used, must be prefixed with the vrf name <name> command.
The following commands would be required to set options ofr a given dynamic routing protocol inside a given vrf:
It is not sufficient to only configure a VRF but VRFs must be maintained, too. For VR Fmaintenance the followin operational commands are in place.
List VRFs that have been created
vyos@vyos:~$ show vrf VRF name state mac address flags interfaces -------- ----- ----------- ----- ---------- blue up 00:53:12:d8:74:24 noarp,master,up,lower_up dum200,eth0.302 red up 00:53:de:02:df:aa noarp,master,up,lower_up dum100,eth0.300,bond0.100,peth0
Command should probably be extended to list also the real interfaces assigned to this one VRF to get a better overview.
vyos@vyos:~$ show vrf name blue VRF name state mac address flags interfaces -------- ----- ----------- ----- ---------- blue up 00:53:12:d8:74:24 noarp,master,up,lower_up dum200,eth0.302
Display IPv4 routing table for VRF identified by <name>.
vyos@vyos:~$ show ip route vrf blue Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, E - EIGRP, N - NHRP, T - Table, v - VNC, V - VNC-Direct, A - Babel, D - SHARP, F - PBR, f - OpenFabric, > - selected route, * - FIB route, q - queued route, r - rejected route VRF blue: K 0.0.0.0/0 [255/8192] unreachable (ICMP unreachable), 00:00:50 S>* 172.16.0.0/16 [1/0] via 192.0.2.1, dum1, 00:00:02 C>* 192.0.2.0/24 is directly connected, dum1, 00:00:06
Display IPv6 routing table for VRF identified by <name>.
vyos@vyos:~$ show ipv6 route vrf red Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIPng, O - OSPFv3, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, N - NHRP, T - Table, v - VNC, V - VNC-Direct, A - Babel, D - SHARP, F - PBR, f - OpenFabric, > - selected route, * - FIB route, q - queued route, r - rejected route VRF red: K ::/0 [255/8192] unreachable (ICMP unreachable), 00:43:20 C>* 2001:db8::/64 is directly connected, dum1, 00:02:19 C>* fe80::/64 is directly connected, dum1, 00:43:19 K>* ff00::/8 [0/256] is directly connected, dum1, 00:43:19
The ping command is used to test whether a network host is reachable or not.
Ping uses ICMP protocol’s mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway. ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (pings) will have an IP and ICMP header, followed by “struct timeval” and an arbitrary number of pad bytes used to fill out the packet.
When doing fault isolation with ping, your should first run it on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up and running. Then, continue with hosts and gateways further down the road towards your destination. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
Duplicate packets are not included in the packet loss calculation, although the round-trip time of these packets is used in calculating the minimum/ average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
Ping command can be interrupted at any given time using <Ctrl>+c- A brief statistic is shown afterwards.
vyos@vyos:~$ ping 192.0.2.1 vrf red PING 192.0.2.1 (192.0.2.1) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 192.0.2.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.070 ms 64 bytes from 192.0.2.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.078 ms ^C --- 192.0.2.1 ping statistics --- 2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 4ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.070/0.074/0.078/0.004 ms