Wireless (Wi-Fi)

WLAN interface provide 802.11 (a/b/g/n/ac) wireless support (commonly referred to as Wi-Fi) by means of compatible hardware. If your hardware supports it, VyOS supports multiple logical wireless interfaces per physical device.

There are three modes of operation for a wireless interface:

  • WAP provides network access to connecting stations if the physical hardware supports acting as a WAP
  • A station acts as a Wi-Fi client accessing the network through an available WAP
  • Monitor, the system passively monitors any kind of wireless traffic

If the system detects an unconfigured wireless device, it will be automatically added the configuration tree, specifying any detected settings (for example, its MAC address) and configured to run in monitor mode.

To be able to use the wireless interfaces you will first need to set a regulatory domain with the country code of your locaion.

set system wifi-regulatory-domain DE

Configure system wide Wi-Fi regulatory domain. A reboot is required for this change to be enabled.

Configuring Access-Point

The following example creates a WAP. When configuring multiple WAP interfaces, you must specify unique IP addresses, channels, Network IDs commonly refered to as SSID, and MAC addresses.

The WAP in this example has the following characteristics:

  • IP address 192.168.2.1/24
  • Network ID (SSID) TEST
  • WPA passphrase 12345678
  • Use 802.11n protocol
  • Wireless channel 1
set interfaces wireless wlan0 address '192.168.2.1/24'
set interfaces wireless wlan0 type access-point
set interfaces wireless wlan0 channel 1
set interfaces wireless wlan0 mode n
set interfaces wireless wlan0 ssid 'TEST'
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa mode wpa2
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa cipher CCMP
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa passphrase '12345678'

Resulting in

interfaces {
  [...]
  wireless wlan0 {
        address 192.168.2.1/24
        channel 1
        mode n
        security {
            wpa {
                cipher CCMP
                mode wpa2
                passphrase "12345678"
            }
        }
        ssid "TEST"
        type access-point
    }
}
system {
  [...]
  wifi-regulatory-domain DE
}

To get it to work as a access point with this configuration you will need to set up a DHCP server to work with that network. You can - of course - also bridge the Wireless interface with any configured bridge (Bridge) on the system.

WPA/WPA2 enterprise

WPA and WPA2 Enterprise in combination with 802.1x based authentication can be used to authenticate users or computers in a domain.

The wireless client (supplicant) authenticates against the RADIUS server (authentication server) using an EAP method configured on the RADIUS server. The WAP (also referred to as authenticator) role is to send all authentication messages between the supplicant and the configured authentication server, thus the RADIUS server is responsible for authenticating the users.

The WAP in this example has the following characteristics:

  • IP address 192.168.2.1/24
  • Network ID (SSID) Enterprise-TEST
  • WPA passphrase 12345678
  • Use 802.11n protocol
  • Wireless channel 1
  • RADIUS server at 192.168.3.10 with shared-secret VyOSPassword
set interfaces wireless wlan0 address '192.168.2.1/24'
set interfaces wireless wlan0 type access-point
set interfaces wireless wlan0 channel 1
set interfaces wireless wlan0 mode n
set interfaces wireless wlan0 ssid 'TEST'
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa mode wpa2
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa cipher CCMP
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa radius server 192.168.3.10 key 'VyOSPassword'
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa radius server 192.168.3.10 port 1812

Resulting in

interfaces {
  [...]
  wireless wlan0 {
        address 192.168.2.1/24
        channel 1
        mode n
        security {
            wpa {
                cipher CCMP
                mode wpa2
                radius {
                    server 192.168.3.10 {
                        key 'VyOSPassword'
                        port 1812
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        ssid "Enterprise-TEST"
        type access-point
    }
}
system {
  [...]
  wifi-regulatory-domain DE
}

Configuring Wireless Station

The example creates a wireless station (commonly referred to as Wi-Fi client) that accesses the network through the WAP defined in the above example. The default physical device (phy0) is used.

set interfaces wireless wlan0 type station
set interfaces wireless wlan0 address dhcp
set interfaces wireless wlan0 ssid Test
set interfaces wireless wlan0 security wpa

Resulting in

interfaces {
  [...]
  wireless wlan0 {
    address dhcp
    security {
      wpa {
        passphrase "12345678"
      }
    }
    ssid TEST
    type station
  }

Operational Commands

show interfaces wireless info

Use this command to view operational status and wireless-specific information about all wireless interfaces.

[email protected]:~$ show interfaces wireless info
Interface  Type          SSID                         Channel
wlan0      access-point  VyOS-TEST-0                        1
show interfaces wireless detail

Use this command to view operational status and detailes wireless-specific information about all wireless interfaces.

[email protected]:~$ show interfaces wireless detail
wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:c3 brd XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:ff
    inet xxx.xxx.99.254/24 scope global wlan0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::xxxx:xxxx:fe54:2fc3/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

    RX:  bytes    packets     errors    dropped    overrun      mcast
         66072        282          0          0          0          0
    TX:  bytes    packets     errors    dropped    carrier collisions
         83413        430          0          0          0          0

wlan1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:c3 brd XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:ff
    inet xxx.xxx.100.254/24 scope global wlan0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::xxxx:xxxx:ffff:2ed3/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

    RX:  bytes    packets     errors    dropped    overrun      mcast
         166072      5282          0          0          0          0
    TX:  bytes    packets     errors    dropped    carrier collisions
         183413      5430          0          0          0          0
show interfaces wireless <wlanX>

This command shows both status and statistics on the specified wireless interface. The wireless interface identifier can range from wlan0 to wlan999.

[email protected]:~$ show interfaces wireless wlan0
wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:c3 brd XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:ff
    inet xxx.xxx.99.254/24 scope global wlan0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::xxxx:xxxx:fe54:2fc3/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

    RX:  bytes    packets     errors    dropped    overrun      mcast
         66072        282          0          0          0          0
    TX:  bytes    packets     errors    dropped    carrier collisions
         83413        430          0          0          0          0
show interfaces wireless <wlanX> brief

This command gives a brief status overview of a specified wireless interface. The wireless interface identifier can range from wlan0 to wlan999.

[email protected]:~$ show interfaces wireless wlan0 brief
Codes: S - State, L - Link, u - Up, D - Down, A - Admin Down
Interface        IP Address                        S/L  Description
---------        ----------                        ---  -----------
wlan0            192.168.2.254/24                    u/u
show interfaces wireless <wlanX> queue

Use this command to view wireless interface queue information. The wireless interface identifier can range from wlan0 to wlan999.

[email protected]:~$ show interfaces wireless wlan0 queue
qdisc pfifo_fast 0: root bands 3 priomap 1 2 2 2 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Sent 810323 bytes 6016 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0)
 rate 0bit 0pps backlog 0b 0p requeues 0
show interfaces wireless <wlanX> scan

This command is used to retrive information about WAP within the range of your wireless interface. This command is usefull on wireless interfaces configured in station mode.

Note

Scanning is not supported on all wireless drivers and wireless hardware. Refer to your driver and wireless hardware documentation for further details.

[email protected]:~$ show interfaces wireless wlan0 scan
Address            SSID                          Channel  Signal (dbm)
00:53:3b:88:6e:d8  WLAN-576405                         1  -64.00
00:53:3b:88:6e:da  Telekom_FON                         1  -64.00
00:53:00:f2:c2:a4  BabyView_F2C2A4                     6  -60.00
00:53:3b:88:6e:d6  Telekom_FON                       100  -72.00
00:53:3b:88:6e:d4  WLAN-576405                       100  -71.00
00:53:44:a4:96:ec  KabelBox-4DC8                      56  -81.00
00:53:d9:7a:67:c2  WLAN-741980                         1  -75.00
00:53:7c:99:ce:76  Vodafone Homespot                   1  -86.00
00:53:44:a4:97:21  KabelBox-4DC8                       1  -78.00
00:53:44:a4:97:21  Vodafone Hotspot                    1  -79.00
00:53:44:a4:97:21  Vodafone Homespot                   1  -79.00
00:53:86:40:30:da  Telekom_FON                         1  -86.00
00:53:7c:99:ce:76  Vodafone Hotspot                    1  -86.00
00:53:44:46:d2:0b  Vodafone Hotspot                    1  -87.00